Integration of the mitigation and adaptation roles of forests is important in addressing climate change issues. Community forests (CFs) have capacity to contribute in both roles as local communities are collectively working to improve forests and to fulfil their own basic forest product needs. Nowadays, an incentive mechanism for Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation, conservation of forests, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of carbon stocks in forests (REDD+) is emerging and already has received considerable attention in achieving climate change mitigation whereas there has been little analysis of its potential contribution to adaptation objectives, particularly at the community level. Therefore the overarching goal of this study was to analyse CFs from a mitigation and adaptation perspective. This study assesses 105 CFs covering a range of forest types managed by socially diverse communities of Nepal. Two point carbon data (2010 and 2013) was analysed to investigate differences in carbon stocks in these forests following the introduction of a REDD+ pilot program in Nepal. Similarly, a document review and focused group discussions were organised to evaluate the livelihood support and adaptation potential of pilot REDD+ CFs. This study found that community forest user groups (CFUGs) have increased forest carbon stocks and that the pilot REDD+ projects are also delivering livelihood benefits which ultimately will help adaptation to adverse climatic conditions. However, the motivation for communities to realise REDD+ carbon incentives may reduce the food supplement capacity of forests by limiting vegetation diversity.
community forests under REDD+: reducing extraction of forest resources by promoting alternative energy means, carrying out plantation activities in sparse forest areas and uncultivated private land, raising awareness on sustainable harvesting practices, guard- ing to control illegal harvesting and implementing income generat- ing activities at poor households; distribution of alter- native energy sources (improved cooking stoves and biogas plant as alternative of household energy); control dam- age due to forest fires
|Climate change impacts||Effect of Nbs on CCI||Effect measures|
|Other climate impact||Positive||qualitative assessment from interviews on perceived improvements to regulation of microclimate (changes in temp/precipitation regimes)|
|Loss of other ecosystem goods||Positive||qualitative assessment from interviews on access to wood/non-wood forest products|
forests are located in three watersheds—namely, Kayerkhola (271–1618 m asl), Ludikhola (418–1401 m asl) and Charnawati (652–3238masl)