In the aftermath of the severe droughts and floods at the end of the 20th century, the Chinese government launched several ecological restoration projects, including the Natural Forest Protection Program in 1998 and the Grain-for-Green Program in 1999, to promote afforestation and reforestation to reduce surface runoff and consequent soil erosion nationwide. However, it is still unclear how vegetation has changed in southern China since the launch of these programs. In this study, we used the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) to analyze the vegetation cover dynamics in southern China from 2000 to 2009 and evaluate the resulting effects of controlling soil erosion. Our observations indicate that 5.3% of the study area significantly increased and 0.98% significantly decreased in EVI value (p < 0.05). The spring EVI had largest increase in space. The conversions of croplands on steep slopes to forests resulting from national policies led to significant increases in EVI. The increase in EVI was not driven by annual average temperature and annual precipitation. By referencing ecological restoration statistical data and field observations, we showed that ecological restoration programs significantly improved vegetation cover in southern China. Increase in the area of farmland-converted forestlands has reduced soil erosion based upon monitoring sediment yields at hydrologic stations in the Yangtze River. This study displays the spatial patterns of trend in vegetation growth since the beginning of the 21st century in southern China and highlights the important role of China's afforestation program.
GFGP ...Crop fields and barren lands on the slopes are the particular foucs of the restoration projects. Tree species selected for reforestation planted include Pinus armandii, Pinus massoniara, Cryptomeria fortune, Cunninghamia laceo- lata, Cupressus spp., Eucalyptus spp. and Populus deltoids....data assessed was the GGP from 1999 to 2008 and includes the total area of recovered cropland, converted cropland, fenced-off lands, and afforested lands + data for the NFPP including the total area of protected land. There were areas of overlap between these two forestry programs (GGP and NFPP), and the respective scope for each was difficult to distinguish; therefore, we inte- grated these two projects to consider just the general ecological restoration. ...From our field validations, it was clear that natural vegetation had recovered since the begin- ning of GGP in 2000 (S1 Fig). In addition, fencing for reforestation was adopted and felling was forbidden. Local government has been recovering the barren mountain through aerial seeding, which significantly helps vegetation recovery. From our field validations, it was clear that natural vegetation had recovered since the begin- ning of GGP in 2000 (S1 Fig). In addition, fencing for reforestation was adopted and felling was forbidden. Local government has been recovering the barren mountain through aerial seeding, which significantly helps vegetation recovery.
|Climate change impacts||Effect of Nbs on CCI||Effect measures|
|Soil erosion||Positive||Sediment yield collected from hydrological data at seven monitoring sites along the main reaches of the Yangtze River|
|Biomass cover loss||Positive||BIO_CV: MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) to analyze the vegetation cover dynamics - also validate results with visits to field sites|
The study was performed in southern China. It is located between 18°90-36°290N and 78°230- 122°570E, covering a total area of 362.84×104 km2. This region spans from the Tibetan Plateau, with an average elevation of 5000 m, to the East China Sea … GGP covers 11 provinces, including Anhui, Jiangxi, Hubei, Hunan, Guangxi, Hai- nan, Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan and Tibet.