Localized floods, poverty and food security: Empirical evidence from rural Pakistan

Ali, A., Rahut, D. B., 2020. Hydrology

Original research (primary data)
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National level floods affect large sections of the population, and in turn, receive attention from the government and international agencies. Localized natural disasters, including localized floods, do not get the attention of the government and policymakers because their impact is felt within limited geographical areas, despite the fact that these disasters severely affect the livelihood of rural communities. This study examines the impact of localized floods on the livelihood of farmers in Pakistan using a cross-sectional data set collected from 812 households. The empirical results show that localized floods severely affect rural livelihoods, and affected households have lowered cereal crop yields, less income, and reduced food security levels. Farmers adopt a number of strategies, including crop and livestock insurance, bund-making, land-leveling, and tree planting, to combat the impact of localized floods. Among all these mitigating strategies, the tree plantation is ranked as the best mitigating strategy followed by crop and livestock insurance, land leveling, and bund making, respectively. Education, wealth, access to non-governmental organizations (NGOs), extension services, and infrastructure, influence the adoption of measures to mitigate the effect of flood risks. National policy on localized flood risks needs to strengthen local institutions to provide support to families and extension services to train farmers to mitigate the impact of localized floods. � 2020 by the authors.

Case studies

Basic information

  • Case ID: INT-261-1
  • Intervention type: Created habitats
  • Intervention description:

    Farmers planting trees to protect farmland and their homes/property in general

  • Landscape/sea scape ecosystem management: No
  • Climate change impacts Effect of Nbs on CCI Effect measures
    Freshwater flooding  Unclear results Freshwater flooding: ranking of perceived effectiveness of intervention but only in relation to alternative approaches and therefore coded as unclear
  • Approach implemented in the field: Yes
  • Specific location:

    Tree plantations are implemented all over the country and study assesses effectiveness across it "A comprehensive cross-sectional data set was collected from 812 households. The data was collected from all the four provinces of Pakistan: Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), and Balochistan."

  • Country: Pakistan
  • Habitat/Biome type: Created forest |
  • Issue specific term: Not applicable


  • Notes on intervention effectivness: effectiveness assessed only in comparison to alternative interventions hence coded unclear and based on household surveys on their perceptions of which is the most effective
  • Is the assessment original?: Yes
  • Broadtype of intervention considered: Engineered approach(es) and other non-NbS approach(es)
  • Compare effectivness?: Yes
  • Compared to the non-NBS approach: More effective
  • Report greenhouse gas mitigation?: No
  • Impacts on GHG: Not applicable
  • Assess outcomes of the intervention on natural ecosystems: No
  • Impacts for the ecosystem: Not reported
  • Ecosystem measures: N/A
  • Assess outcomes of the intervention on people: Yes
  • Impacts for people: Unclear
  • People measures: same as outcome measure because linked to specific household perceptions of effectiveness Freshwater flooding: ranking of perceived effectiveness of intervention but only in relation to alternative approaches and therefore coded as unclear
  • Considers economic costs: No
  • Economic appraisal conducted: No
  • Economic appraisal described:
  • Economic costs of alternative considered: No
  • Compared to an alternative: Not reported

Evaluation methodology

  • Type of data: Qualitative
  • Is it experimental: No
  • Experimental evalution done: Not applicable
  • Non-experimental evalution done: Empirical case study
  • Study is systematic: