National level floods affect large sections of the population, and in turn, receive attention from the government and international agencies. Localized natural disasters, including localized floods, do not get the attention of the government and policymakers because their impact is felt within limited geographical areas, despite the fact that these disasters severely affect the livelihood of rural communities. This study examines the impact of localized floods on the livelihood of farmers in Pakistan using a cross-sectional data set collected from 812 households. The empirical results show that localized floods severely affect rural livelihoods, and affected households have lowered cereal crop yields, less income, and reduced food security levels. Farmers adopt a number of strategies, including crop and livestock insurance, bund-making, land-leveling, and tree planting, to combat the impact of localized floods. Among all these mitigating strategies, the tree plantation is ranked as the best mitigating strategy followed by crop and livestock insurance, land leveling, and bund making, respectively. Education, wealth, access to non-governmental organizations (NGOs), extension services, and infrastructure, influence the adoption of measures to mitigate the effect of flood risks. National policy on localized flood risks needs to strengthen local institutions to provide support to families and extension services to train farmers to mitigate the impact of localized floods. ï¿½ 2020 by the authors.
Farmers planting trees to protect farmland and their homes/property in general
|Climate change impacts||Effect of Nbs on CCI||Effect measures|
|Freshwater flooding||Unclear results||Freshwater flooding: ranking of perceived effectiveness of intervention but only in relation to alternative approaches and therefore coded as unclear|
Tree plantations are implemented all over the country and study assesses effectiveness across it "A comprehensive cross-sectional data set was collected from 812 households. The data was collected from all the four provinces of Pakistan: Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), and Balochistan."