Rangeland ecosystems have vital role in Balochistan due to many direct services to the society like food, forage, medicines, fuel, building materials, industrial products, and indirect services of maintaining the composition of the environment, mitigating climate and moderating weather, fertilizing and stabilizing soils, disposing of wastes, cycling nutrients, storing and purifying water. Rangelands degradation in Balochistan is a major issue and affecting not only the direct users of pastoral communities but many others benefiting from the environmental services. Some of the indicators of rangelands degradation include reduction in vegetation cover, above ground plant productivity, soil erosion, elimination of soil seed bank, and shift in species composition. Rangeland degradation is site specific due to spatial, temporal variation of vegetation and utilization practices. Studies on recovery of natural vegetation, re-generation of native species, seasonal biomass variations, evaluation of fodder shrubs and community based efforts are being carried out by the Arid Zone Research Centre (AZRC), Quetta in various districts of Balochistan. Above ground dry biomass production varies from 40 to 200 kg/ha in open areas as compared to 200 to 865 kg/ha in protected areas. Heavily grazed grasslands have good recovery potential under favourable climatic conditions. Re-generation potential of native range species is limited due to weak persistent soil seed bank and insufficient rainfall distribution during germination and establishment of seedlings. Biomass availability gradually declines and winter months are critical for grazing. Fodder shrubs like Atriplex canescens and Salsola vermiculata have potential for establishment of forage reserve blocks with micro-catchment water harvesting techniques. Communities degraded rangelands can be rehabilitated either by grazing management or plantation of drought tolerant fodder shrubs on appropriate sites. A viable and sound rangeland policy and implementation strategies are mandatory for conservation and utilization of the rangeland resources on sustainable basis.
Protected exclosures from livestock grazing in the context of rangeland management to reverse land degradation. "Studies were carried out to determine the potential of biological recovery of heavy grazed grasslands and shrub land by protecting the area from grazing. "
|Climate change impacts
|Effect of Nbs on CCI
|Loss of food production
|Dry matter forage production (kg/ha)
Different districts in the Balochistan Province - Tomagh (Ziarat), Kovak (Kalat), Mangochar (Kalat), Mastung